Officers of the Honolulu Police Department (HPD) shall be guided
by this direct i ve when conducting field showups, field lineups,
photographic lineups, and phy sical lineups.
A. Blind lineup: A photographic -lineup procedure where
the lineup administrator has no knowledge of which
person in the lineup is the suspect.
B. Blinded lineup: A photographic – lineup procedure
where the lineup administrator knows the identity of
the suspect but does not know the order of the
photographs being viewed by the wi tness .
C. Field lineup : An investigative technique in the
field used short l y after a crime has occurred. This
involves arranging a number of indiv iduals (including
fillers) in a row for a live presentation for the
purpose of identify ing if any o f the indi v iduals
committed the crime .
D. Fie l d showup: An investigative technique in the
field used shortly after a crime has occurred. This
involves the l ive presentation of an individual to a
victim or witness for the purpose of confirming or
eliminating the person as someone invol ved in the
commission of the crime .
E. Fillers: Indiv iduals who are not suspected of the
crime but who are used to fil l out the remaining
spots in a lineup .
F. Lineup administrator: A sworn officer of the HPD
overseeing or conducting a witness ident ifi cation
G. Photographic lineup packet: A packet consisting of
six photographs on separate pieces of paper placed in
separate fo lders .
H. Physical lineup: A criminal investigation technique
utilized by investigators pursuant to a formal
investigation. This process involves presenting a
number of individuals (including fillers) for
identification to a victim or witness in a structured
I. Sequential lineup: A method of photographic lineup
administration where photographs are shown to the
victim/witness one at a time, with an independent
dec ision on each, before the next photograph is
A. It is important that the officer take a full and
detailed statement from the witness as to how the
suspect was originally seen. The U.S. Supreme Court
has held that even though an illegal lineup has been
held, the witness may still make a valid, in-court
identification if it can be shown by the prosecution
that the identification made by the wi tness is the
result of the original view of the suspect and was
not the result of the illegal lineup.
B. For this reason, the o f ficer should question the
wi tness caref u l ly and document the:
1. Opportunity of the witness to view the suspect
at the time of the crime ( l ength of time,
lighting conditions, and d i stance) ;
2. Witness’ degree of attention during the crime;
3. Similari ty between the witness ‘ description of
the suspect who committed the crime and the
person being viewed;
4. Degree of certainty demonstrated by the witness
at the showup/ lineup; and
5. Date and time of the showup/lineup.
c. Under no circumstances shall officers make statements
to witnesses that would indicate who the suspect is
or the off icer’s belief in the guilt of the suspect
prior to, during, or after a witness views the
D. Before conducting any type of identification, the
officer should explain the following to the witness:
1. The fact that a photograph is being shown or
person is being viewed should not influence the
2. The suspect mayor may not be inc l uded in the
showup/lineup. Witnesses should not conclude
nor be led to believe that any showup/lineup
automatically includes the suspect;
3. The witness should not feel compelled or
obligated to make an identification. It is just
as important to eliminate the innocent as it is
to identify the guilty. Whether or not the
witness identifies someone, the investigation
will continue; and
4. The witness is not to discuss the procedure or
the results with any other potential witness in
E . When pract i c a l, each wi tness s hould v i ew the
showup / lineup separately to avoid influencing
another’s perception of the suspect. If not
practical, each witness should be advised not to
indicate in any way (e .g., speak or gesture) his or
her opinion or observations.
FIELD SHOWUPS AND FIELD LINEUPS
A. When identification is required , the suspect may be
shown singly to witnesses through a field showup or
with a group i n a field lineup in the following
1. The suspect is detained in close proximity in
time and place to the occurrence of a crime.
When possible, the witness or victim should be
brought to the suspect’s location for
identification to avoid undue infringement of the
suspect’s freedom; and/or
2. The witness is in danger of death and it is
feared that death may occur before an
identification can be made. In this case, the
suspect may be brought to the witness for
B. If there is a significant delay in locating the
suspect, such as the next day or several hours, a
photographic or physical lineup should be used
instead of a field showup/lineup.
C. A field showup is not necessary when the witness
knows the suspect personally and has positively
stated that the suspect is the person.
CONDUCTING FIELD SHOWUPS AND FIELD LINEUPS
To ensure that field showups and fie l d lineups are
conducted in a fair and impartial manner and that any
resulting identification be considered reliable, the
f ollowing rules, which are listed on the Field
Showup/Lineup Instructions and Results, HPD-284E form,
have been established:
A. Witnesses should be transported individually to the
suspect’s location and should not be allowed to hear
others’ accounts of the incident and/or
B. Each witness should be read the instructions on the
Field Showup/Lineup, HPD-284F form, prior to viewing
C. Suggestive remarks or feedback shall not be made to
D. Whenever possible, eliminate physical suggestions
such as visible handcuffs to avoid influencing those
viewing the suspect. Officers shall not dress the
suspect in clothing that the suspect has discarded or
E. The officer should ask the witness, “Is this the
person who (describe action)?”
1. If the witness answers, “no,” the witness may be
2. If the witness answers, “yes,” ask, “Why did you
identify the person as the person who (describe
3. Once the field showup/ lineup has been viewed,
the witness should be asked to complete, sign,
and date the witness section of the HPD-284F
F. Whenever practicable, a field lineup is preferred
over a field showup. Also, whenever practicable:
1. A field lineup should consist of at least five
persons other than the suspect; and
2 . Participants in a field lineup should be
approximately the same age , height, weight, and
build a s the suspect . If possibl e, part i c i pants
should a lso share s i milar f e atures wi th the
3. When identificati on is made by a wi tness, ask
the witness to ident i fy the person by number
counting from left to right as the witness faces
G. Fie l d showups / lineups shall be documented on the
HPD-284E form and in the investigative report.
Documented information in the investigative report
1. Basic personal and descriptive information of
every person used in the showup or lineup,
including (but not limited to ) clothing,
demeanor, and any injuries of those detained;
2. Photographs of the showup/ lineup;
3. Location of the showup/ lineup;
4 . Lighting and weather conditions during the
5. Approximate distance and circumstances the
viewing took place between the suspect and the
6. The witness’ verbatim statement of the
identification or n onidentification of the
7. Results of the showup / lineup.
H. At the conclusion of a field showup or lineup, a
complete and detailed statement shall a l so be
obtained on the Statement Form , HPD-252, from the
witness making the positive identificat i on.
The U. S . Supreme Court has held that the method used to
identify suspects by means of photographs must be fair.
Therefore, the HPD utilizes the blind or blinded
sequential photographic lineup.
A. Each witness should v i ew photographs alone or unde r
circumstances such that other witnesses will not be
influenced or exposed to suggestion.
B. The photographs shown to the witness should be
selected to ensure fa irness and impartial ity to the
C. The fairness and impartiality of the identification
by photographs will depend on the circumstances. As
much as practical, filler photographs of persons who
share similar facial features with, appear
approximate l y the same age as, and have the same
build as the suspect should be selected.
D. There should be a similarity in the format and type
of photographs shown. The same procedure should be
followed in the viewing of mug photographs.
E. Ask the witness, “Why did you identify the person as
the person who (describe action)?” The reason shall
be documented in the investigative report.
F. If the photographic lineup is being sent to a
jurisdiction outside of the department, the lineup
may be conducted based on that agency’s policies,
procedures, and/or laws.
A. Blind Sequential Photographic Lineup
The blind sequential photographic lineup shall be the
preferred procedure for conducting the photographic
lineup. Photographic lineups shall be conducted by a
lineup administrator and not the assigned
No information on the identity of the suspect shall
be revealed to the lineup administrator before or
after the lineup. If the lineup administrator knows,
deduces, or discovers the identity of the suspect ,
the lineup administrator shall notify the
investigator as soon as practicable. A new lineup
administrator must be l ocated or a blinded
photographic lineup shall be conducted. Also, a
lineup administrator shall not conduct a blind
sequential lineup if he or she has any information
that would allow them to know the identity of the
1. The assigned investigator shall prepare a
photographic lineup packet as follows:
a. The photographs to be used in the lineup
shall be comprised of photographs that are
consistent in size, shape, and color. None
of the photographs should unduly stand out.
b. Each packet shall contain six photographs
consisting of one photograph of the suspect
and five filler photographs of persons not
connected to the incident under
investigation. Each photograph shall be on
a separate piece of paper and placed in
separate, identical folders .
c. The investigator shall write
d. The remaining five photographs shall be
numbered by the lineup administrator.
The lineup administrator shall randomly
order these photographs and number them
corresponding to their sequential positions
in the lineup and the numbered folders.
e. The investigator shal l fill out the case
inf ormation on the Sequential Photographic
Lineup Instructions and Resul ts, HPD-284C
form, that is to be given to the lineup
2. The lineup administrator will receive a separate
photographic lineup packet from the investigator
for each suspect.
3. If the witness is a child, a person with limited
English proficiency, or a person with an
intellectual disability, the Alternate
Simplified Instructions for Sequential
Photographic Lineup, HPD-284D f orm, may be used .
Policy Number 4.30
If the witness is a child, a person with limited
English proficiency, or a person with an
intellectual disability, the Alternate
Simplified Instructions for Sequential
Photographic Lineup, HPD-284D f orm, may be used .
The investigator should be present prior to t he
administration of the lineup and explain to the
witness that the HPD utilizes b l ind lineup
procedures. The investigator should a lso
introduce the witness to the lineup
administrator and explain that the administrator
does not know if the suspect is included in the
5. Administration of the Blind Lineup
a. The assigned investigator or anyone with
knowledge of the suspect shall not be in
view of the witness during the lineup
b. The lineup administrator shall give
instructions to the witness by verbally
reading the Sequential Photographic Lineup,
HPD- 284B form, and v erify that the witness
understands. The witness shall then be
asked to initial the form.
c. The lineup administrator shall present to
the witness only one folder at a time.
Once the witness has made a decision on a
photograph in the folder, it should be
taken back and the photograph shal l be
p laced out of sight and the next folder
shal l be presented.
d. The lineup administrator will begin the
process by present i ng photograph #1 to the
wi t ness and asking, “Is this the person who
(1 ) If the witness answers, “no,” take the
photograph back and continue
presenting the remaining photographs
in the same manner.
(2) If the witness answers, “yes,” the
witness shall complete the Sequential
Photographic Lineup, HPD – 284B form .
(3) Have the witness sign and date the
front of the photograph in the white
(4) Even if identif i cation is made, the
admini strator shall continue showing
all remaining photographs in the same
e. While viewing the rest of the lineup, if
another photograph is identified as that of
the suspect, the lineup administrator shall
ask for an explanation in the witness’ own
words why a different photograph was
identified as the suspect.
f. After all photographs have been presented,
repeat the lineup onl y if requested by the
If the photographic l ineup is to be
repeated, all photographs must be presented
again in the same sequence, even if the
witness requests to see only a particular
g. The lineup administrator shall record the
results of the lineup and the responses to
the questions on the HPD-284C f orm. The
lineup admi nistrator s hall ini t i a l t he
front of each phot og r a ph for lineup
verification i n court.
h. The lineup administrator shal l return the
l ineup packe t to the assigned i nvestigator
along wi th t he HPD – 284B and HPD-284C forms.
i. The assigned investigator shall meet with
the witness to answer any questions or
conduct any further interviewing.
B. Blinded Sequential Photographic Lineup
1. When a blind lineup administrator is unavailable
or it is impractical to conduct a blind
sequential lineup, a blinded lineup shall be
conducted. This alternative procedure must be
preapproved by a supervisor and the
justification must be documented.
2. The assigned investigator may serve as the
blinded lineup administrator.
3. In a blinded lineup, the lineup administrator
knows the identity of the suspect but cannot see
and does not know the order of the photographs
being presented to the witness.
4. The witness knows that the lineup administrator
does not know the order of the photographs and
is instructed not to let the lineup
administrator see the photographs until the
lineup is complete.
5. Administration of the Blinded Lineup
a. The assigned investigator shall prepare the
lineup packet as described in section VI A
1 a through c above.
b. Prior to administering the lineup, the
lineup administrator shall have another
officer randomly order the
photographs and number them
correspond ing to their positions in the
lineup and numbered folders.
c. The officer shall return the five folders
to the lineup administrator without
a llowing the lineup admi nistrator to see
any of the photographs.
d. Except for the lineup administrator, anyone
wi t h knowledge of the suspect shall not be
in view of the witness when the lineup i s
e. The lineup shall be conducted in such a
manner that the lineup administrator cannot
see the photographs the witness is viewi ng.
f. The witness shall be told that the
administrator does not know the order of
the photographs. The witness shall be
instructed not to let the administrator see
the photographs until the lineup is
g . The blinded lineup administrator shall
administer the lineup in accordance with
section VI A 5 b through i above.
h. If the witness shows the lineup
administrator the photograph, the
administrator shall continue with the
blinded sequential lineup. At the end of
the lineup, the administrator shall
document the facts and circumstances
surrounding the witness showing the
administrator the photograph.
C. Exception to the Blind and Blinded Sequential
The only exception to the blind and blinded
sequential photographi c lineup would be t he
conf i rmation photograph. If the suspect is known to
the victim or witness (i.e . , relative, friend, or
acquaintance), then a s i ngle confirmation photograph
may be used. The investigator shall obtain prior
approval from his or he r s upervisor be f ore showi ng a
confirmat i on photograph .
1. The phot ograph s ha l l not have any identifiable
information on it, such as a name or personal
2. When showing the victim or witness the
photograph, the investigator shall not offer any
identifiable information. The investigator
shall ask, “Who is this per son in the
photograph ? Is this the person who committed
D. Mul tiple Witnesses and/or Mult i ple Suspects
1. If mUltiple witnesses wil l be shown lineups
containing the same suspect, a separate lineup
packet must be assembled for each wi tness.
2. The same administrator may be used to present
the packets to different witnesses and use the
same photographs if the following occurs:
a. The administrator mixes the photographs for
each packet and no two packets may have the
same sequence of photographs;
b.The first photograph shall not be the
c. The witnesses do not have time to
communicate in any manner with each other;
d. The lineups can be completed ln a reasonable
and timely manner.
3. If any of subsection VI D 2 a through d above
cannot be accomplished, then mUltiple
administrators are needed to complete the blind
4. If the same witness Vlews multiple lineups,
there shall be a separate lineup packet for each
suspect. Each l i neup packet shall be comprised
of diffe rent fil l er photographs.
E . Use of the Appropriate HPD Form
1. The Sequential Photographic Lineup, HPD-284B
form, shall be uti l ized in the identification of
suspects. Witnes s es shal l complete the forms by
describing in the i r own words how certain they
are of the identification of the suspect(s).
2. The Photographic Li neup, HPD-284A form, shall be
used by outside agencies that assist the HPD by
conduct i ng photographic l i neups but do not
utilize blind or blinded lineup procedures.
F . Report Writing and Ev i dence Submission
1. At the conclusion of the sequential lineup, t he
administrator shall compl ete a follow-up r eport
document ing the actions taken by the
2. Copies of the administrator’s follow-up report,
original photographs, and original signature
forms used for the sequential lineup shall be
given to the investigator to submit with the
3. The administrator’s original follow-up report, a
copy of all of the photographs, and a copy of
the signature forms used for the sequential
lineup shall be submitted to the Records and
4. If a d i g i tal audi o recording is made of the
sequential lineup, the administrator shall make
two copies of the digital audio recording. The
administrator shall submit one copy into
evidence and the second copy to the
investigator. The investigator shall submit the
digital audio recording for transcription .
PHYSICAL LINEUP SITUATIONS
A physical lineup may be conducted when a suspect is i n
custody, and it i s desirable to have witnesses view the
suspect for the purpose of identification. Physical
lineups wi l l be administered by the Criminal
I nvestigation Divi sion. Suspects s h a ll not be shown
s i ngl y to victims or witnes ses. Exceptions t o this
requirement are outlined in section I I I A above.
A. Physical lineups may be conduct ed if there are
several witnesses availabl e or i f seeing the
suspect’s entire body or hearing the suspect’s voice
may aid in identification.
B. If a particular witness is unable to attend the
scheduled physical lineup, a photographic lineup may
be substituted instead.
C. In no case should lineup witnesses be shown
photographs of the suspect either immediately prior
to or after the physical lineup.
WARNING OF CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
A. Before a suspect is placed in a physical lineup, he
or she shall be adv ised of the constitutional rights
concerning lineups through the use of the Warning
Person to be Viewed in Lineup of Right to Have an
Attorney Present, HPD-284 form.
B. If the suspect requests to have an attorney present
during the physical lineup, arrangements must be made
to have the attorney v iew the lineup.
C. If the suspect requests to have an attorney present
during the physical lineup but cannot afford to hire
one, the investigating officer shall call the Office
of the Public Defender for the appointment of an
D. If problems arise, the Department of the Prosecuting
Attorney should be consulted. Examples of
circumstances where consultation might be necessary:
1 . An attorney refuses t o attend the physical
2 . An attorney fails to appear within a reasonable
CONDUCTING THE PHYSICAL LINEUP
I n order to ensure that a physical lineup is conducted in
a fair and impartial manner and that any resulting
i dentificat i on be considered reliabl e, the following rules
have been establ i shed:
A. The lineup shall consist of at l east five persons
other than the suspect.
B. The participants in the lineup should be
approximate l y the same age, he i ght, weight, and build
as the suspect. If possible, the participants should
also share similar features with the suspect.
C. The participants in the lineup should be dressed in a
fashion similar to the suspect.
D. Police are not required to furnish the suspect wi th
clothes for the lineup. If clothing similar to that
observed to have been worn by the offender at the
time of the offense is found in the possession of the
suspect, the suspect may be made to wear those items
in the lineup. However, a much stronger
identification will r e sult if the suspect is not
wearing clothes worn during the commission of the
E. Photographs and a video recording of the physical
lineup shall be made and submitted into evidence.
COMPELLING SUSPECT TO PARTICIPATE
A. Off i cers may compel a suspect to be viewed by a
witness. This does not violate any constitutional
right and is a legitimate investigative technique.
B. Reproducing the appearance of the suspect at the time
of the offense is a legitimate police technique
(e.g., masking parts of the suspect’s face, covering
C. The suspect may be compelled to repeat certain
phrases used during t he commiss i on of the offense.
Moreover, havi ng the suspect speak for
identification, assume a stance, walk, or make a
part i cular g e sture are proper techniques of
inve stigat i on.
D. I f the suspect re f uses t o speak or o therwi se
coope rate, the suspect shoul d be advised (out of the
pres ence of the witnesses who are to view the lineup)
that unwillingness to cooperate shall be recorded f or
presentation at trial.
E . If the suspect is compelled to do or say anything,
then each participant in the physical lineup must do
or say the same thing to ensure fairness and
LEGAL REPRESENTATI VE
A. If an attorney arrives for the physical lineup, he
or she must be given an opportunity to confer with
the suspect. The attorney’s role is one of an
observer, and he or she has no authority to tell
officers what to do or otherwise disrupt the conduct
of the lineup. If witnesses wish to talk to the
suspect’s attorney, they are within their rights to
B. The suspect’s attorney may be denied presence during
the taking of statements from witnesses after the
C. Problems arising with the suspect’s attorney should
be referred to the Department of the Prosecuting
Attorney. I f the attorney is uncooperative, officers
should not argue. However, the attorney should be
informed that his or her objections wi l l be noted in
the officer’s report and that the lineup will proceed
despite the objections.
The following data concerning the physical lineup shall be
submitted as part of the official investigative report:
A. Evidence of notification to the suspect’s attorney
and, if applicable, refusal or failure to appear;
B. A list of names and physical descriptions of all
participants in the lineup;
C. An o ff ic i a l p hotograph of the l ineup and a v i deo
D. Evidence of any order by the pol ice directing those
in the lineup to walk, assume a position, or speak;
E. The level of confidence expressed by the witness;
F. The results of the lineup; and
G. Any other procedures relevant to the proceedings at
Identification of juvenile suspects shall be conducted in
accordance with the procedures that govern adults.
Exceptions are noted in Policy 4.33, HANDLING JUVENILES.